Muffsy Phono Kits

Hifi Preamps for your Record Player

Build the Muffsy Relay Input Selector 4

The Muffsy Relay Input Selector kit comes with all on-board components, a rotational encoder and an IR receiver. These instructions will show you how to turn all this into a functional input selector for your stereo system.


You can view the schematics for the Muffsy products under the Modify It page.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Kit
The Muffsy Relay Input Selector Kit

Before You Begin Construction

PLEASE NOTE:

  • Make sure you have time to construct the kit. If you are stressed, building the kit will not be very rewarding. And it often leads to mistakes.
  • Familiarize yourself with the instructions before you start building the Muffsy Relay Input Selector.
  • Take the time needed to double-check component values and placements.
  • This kit contains components with a lot of pins. Make sure all pins are soldered.
  • Wash your hands carefully afterwards if you're using leaded solder. Do not lick your fingers or touch any food items while working.

Illustrations Explained

The picture below is a larger version of your printed circuit board. For each step, this will be used to highlight which components you will be adding to the board.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Bare PCB

You will also get a live view of where you are in the build process. It will show you what each component looks like, and present special information if needed.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Instructions
Ongoing construction image

Step 1: Check the Kit Contents

Before you start building, check that you have all components and familiarize yourself with the kit. Here's a list of the kit's contents:

Quantity  Component
1  Muffsy Relay Input Selector Printed Circuit Board
10  Resistors, 1k ohms (extra resistors included for LEDs)
5  Diodes, 1N4004
 6 Transistors, PN2222A
 5 Relays, Panasonic TQ2-5V
 2 Stackable Headers, 19 Pins
 1 ESP-32, NodeMCU-32S
 1 Rotational Encoder, KY-040
 1 IR Receiver, VS1848B

All resistors are 1/4W, metal film, 1% tolerance.

Note:

This high quality printed circuit board has plated-through holes. Do not attempt to drill the holes to make them larger, doing so will destroy the board. The four mount holes, one in each corner, may be drilled to size.

Step 2: Solder the Resistors

There is a total of six resistors, all with the same value of 1k ohms, that go onto the printed circuit board.

The resistors are bidirectional, meaning that you don't have to worry about which way they are oriented.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Resistors
Resistors, marked in blue

Insert the resistors, R1 to R6. Bend them on the backside of the board to make them stay in place. Solder the resistors and snip off the leads.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Resistors
Resistors mounted on the board
Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Resistors
Resistor wires bent on the backside of the board

Step 3: Solder the Diodes

There are five diodes (1N4004) on the board, marked D1 to D5. The orientation matters, the black band on the board matches the silver band on the diodes.


Bend the leads appropriately and solder the diodes to the board. Snip the leads afterwards.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Diodes
Diodes, marked in blue

Again, notice the orientation of the diodes. They are all oriented the same way.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Diodes
Diodes mounted on the PCB

Step 4: Solder the Relays

There are five relays to solder, marked K1 to K5. Each relay has ten legs each, so make sure that every single leg has been soldered to the board.


The orientation of the relays is very important. Match the line to the left on the board markings with the line on the relays. Also, the text on the relays will be the right way up.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Relays
Relays, marked in blue

Tips:

  • Use a piece of tape to hold the relays in place
  • Solder two opposite corners of each relay first
  • Reflow (melt) the solder in each corner with the soldering iron, pushing the relay to the board
  • Solder the rest of the relay pins

This will ensure that the relays are flush with the board.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Relays
Relays, mounted on the board

Step 5: Solder the Transistors

There are six NPN transistors (PN2222A) on the board. These transistors act as switches for the 5V needed to activate the relays, since the ESP-32 board only outputs 3.3 volts.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Transistors
Transistors, marked in blue

The orientation of these transistors is given from the symbols on the board.

Here's how you mount the transistors:

  • Bend back the middle leg slightly (left transistor, below)
  • Place the transistor on the board, and push until the middle leg bends and the transistor is reasonably close to the board (right transistor, below)

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Transistors
Bending the transistor legs

Soldering the transistors:

  • Solder only that bent middle leg first
  • Turn the board around and check that the transistors haven't moved
  • Melt the solder on the transistors that have moved, pushing them back into the board
  • Solder the remaining legs and snip them off

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Transistors
All six transistors soldered to the board

Step 6: Solder the Stackable Headers and ESP-32

The last component to go onto the board is the ESP-32 module that controls the relays.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
ESP-32, marked in blue

Bring out the stackable headers, and take out the ESP-32 module from its ESD-protected bag.

Since the ESP-32's legs can be somewhat tilted, mount the stackable headers on the ESP-32 module. This will make sure that the pins of the ESP-32 module fits into the headers.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
ESP-32 mounted in the stackable headers

Now mount the ESP-32 and the headers to the board as shown below.

  • Solder only the end pins of each stackable header
  • Reflow (melt) the solder in each corner and push the ESP-32 module towards the board to make it flush with the PCB
  • Solder all remaining thirty-six pins, make sure not to forget any of them

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
ESP-32 mounted on the board

Step 7: Adding Controls and LED Status Lights

Creating a circuit board for the controls on this board would severely limit your choices. The options are too many and the front panel layouts are too personal. To get you going, the kit contains a rotational encoder and an IR receiver. These have to be wired manually to the board.


Twisting the rotational encoder will select inputs up and down. Pushing it will turn the input selector's power on and off.


The IR receiver lets you use a remote control. The example code has power on/off, inputs up/down, inputs directly by pushing the number buttons, and mute.

3V3 and GND Connections

You are going to need to connect several wires to GND and 3V3. Note that there are three GND pins on the board, they all work equally well. The connection drawings in steps 7.1 and 7.2 use the GND pads that make the pictures most readable, you can of course use any of them.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
3V3 and GND Connections

Connection Drawings

The connections have been separated into two different drawings for clarity. Combine the two to control the Muffsy Relay Input Selector and get status lights.

Step 7.1: Add Rotational Encoder and IR Receiver

To add the rotational encoder (KY-040) and the IR receiver (VS1848B), you'll need to know which pins to connect them to. The table below shows all pin assigments, the highlighted ones are the ones we need to hook up these accessories.

Pin Assignments - Input Controllers

GPIO  PIN NAME USED FOR
 N/A 3V3 3.3 volts power
 N/A GND Power ground
 2 IO2 Power LED
 4 IO4 Mute LED
 5 IO5 Encoder SW
 12 IO12 Relay 2 (input B)
 16 IO16 Relay 1 (input A)
 17 IO17 Solid State Relay
 27 IO27 Relay 3 (input C)
 32 IO32 Relay 5 (mute)
 33 IO33 Relay 4 (input D)
 34 IO34 Encoder DT
 35 IO35 Encoder CLK
 36 SVP IR Receiver Pin 1

The remaining pins are all useable for LED status lights. But first, lets hook up the rotational encoder and the IR receiver.


Using the provided code, you'll need to connect the rotational encoder and IR receiver to the Muffsy Relay Input Selector board as shown below.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
Connecting Rotational Encoder and IR Receiver

Step 7.2: Add LED Status Lights

The example code handles the following status LEDs:

  • Power LED
  • Mute LED (only when powered on)
  • LED indicators for inputs 1 to 4

To help you along, here are the pins used for status LEDs in the example code.

Pin Assignments - Status LEDs

GPIO  PIN NAME USED FOR
 2 IO2 Power LED
 4 IO4 Mute LED
 5 IO5 Encoder SW
12 IO12 Relay 2 (input B)
 16 IO16 Relay 1 (input A)
 17 IO17 Solid State Relay
 27 IO27 Relay 3 (input C)
 32 IO32 Relay 5 (mute)
 33 IO33 Relay 4 (input D)
 34 IO34 Encoder DT
 35 IO35 Encoder CLK
 36 SVP IR Receiver Pin 1

Here's how to connect the status LEDs to the Muffsy Relay Input Selector.

  • Short LED pins/Black wires are GND
  • Long LED pins/Colored wires go to the GPIO pins

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
Connecting status LEDs

Step 8: Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Signal Wiring

In its simplest configuration, you will have:

  • four sets of RCA inputs connected to the input selector's inputs A to D
  • One connection from input selector's the output to a preamplifier circuit
  • One connection from the preamplifier circuit to the input selector's mute
  • One connection from the input selector's mute to a set of output RCA connectors

If you plan to use any input specific preamplifiers, such as a phono preamp, place it between the RCA input and the input selector's input.

Should your phono preamp be in a separate enclosure, connect its output to one of the inputs below instead.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - Wiring
Signal Wiring Diagram

Some more tips:

  • Isolate the RCA connectors (and any other connectors, such as a ground screw) from the back panel

  • Power the Muffsy Relay Input Selector with it's own, separate, 5V DC power supply
  • The SSR (solid state relay) connection can be used to turn on and off mains power connected through a solid state relay
    (make sure not to turn off power to the Muffsy Relay Input Selector)
  • If you hook up your preamp cabinet to mains power, make sure to connect mains earth to the chassis
  • MAINS POWER IS LETHAL - LEAVE ALL MAINS POWER WORK TO CERTIFIED PROFESSIONALS!

Step 9: Setup the Programming Enviroment

The ESP-32 used to control the Muffsy Relay Input Selector can be programmed in a range of different ways. If you'd like to use my code, the Arduino development tools are needed. They are available for Windows, Mac and Linux.

Install Drivers

The ESP32 board has a CP2102 USB to UART bridge, drivers are available from Silicon Labs:


Install the Arduino IDE Software

Add ESP32 to the Arduino IDE Software

Information on how to program the ESP32 using the Arduino IDE is available from Espressif:

Select the Correct ESP32 Board in the Arduino IDE

The board name in the Arduino IDE is "NodeMCU-32S", as it says on the backside of the board.
When done, go to "Port" in the Tools menu and select the correct port as well.

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
Select the correct board in the Arduino IDE

Step 11: Program the ESP-32

Programming the ESP-32 requires, besides the board installations in the Arduino IDE:

  • The Arduino library IRremote.h, patched for ESP-32
  • The Arduino code for the Muffsy Relay Input Selector

Step 11.1: Download the Code from Github

Both the patched IRremote.h and the Arduino code for the Muffsy Relay Input Selector can be found on Github. Click this link to download the code as a zip archive:

Unzip the downloaded file to find the following three folders:

  • IRremote: Arduino Library, patched for ESP-32
  • MuffsyRelayInputSelector-Arduino: Arduino Code
  • MuffsyRelayInput4-Eagle: Eagle Project Files

If you're used to Git, here's the path to the repository:

Step 11.2: Install the Patched IRremote.h Library

Copy the folder IRremote, with all its contents, to your Arduino library folder as shown in this tutorial:

Step 11.3: Install the Code for the Muffsy Relay Input Selector

PLEASE NOTE:

The ESP-32 can only be powered by a single power source.


Do not power the ESP-32 through the PCB onboard power connection AND the USB cable at the same time,

as it might harm your ESP-32 module!


Remove the ESP-32 module from the Muffsy Relay Input Selector board if you're in doubt.

Installing the Arduino code is pretty straightforward:

  • Connect the ESP-32 board to your computer, using a Micro-USB cable
  • Open the file MuffsyRelayInputSelector-Arduino\relayinput.ino in the Arduino IDE
  • Verify the settings in the Tools menu:
    • Board: NodeMCU-32S
    • Upload Speed: 921600
    • Flash Frequency: 80MHz
    • Port: Select the port for your ESP-32 in the menu below:

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
Arduino IDE Settings

  • Finally, upload the code by clicking on the arrow, as shown in the picture below:

Muffsy Relay Input Selector - ESP-32
Upload Code to the ESP-32

Your Muffsy Relay Input Selector is now programmed and ready to use.

Optional: Modify the Arduino Code

The code is based on functions (blocks of code that can be called as "commands"), and it has a lot of comments that will help you if you want to modify the code.


Whether you're doing modifications, or writing the code from scratch, you need to take the physically reserved pins (the ones wired on the PCB) into account:

Physically Reserved Pins

GPIO  PIN NAME USED FOR
 2 IO2 Power LED
 12 IO12 Relay 2 (input B)
 16 IO16 Relay 1 (input A)
17  IO17 Solid State Relay
 27 IO27 Relay 3 (input C)
 32 IO32 Relay 5 (mute)
 33 IO33 Relay 4 (input D)

Great care has been taken to make sure the most usable ESP-32 pins are available. Both DACs are available, so are, I2C, SPI and most of the touch pins. Pins that are needed for programming the ESP, or pins that will prevent the ESP from booting, have not been used.


You'll also find that the pins used for the relays and the LED status lights don't output any signals during boot, so they will all be at their best behavior when turning the circuit on or off.

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